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In obesity, there is a strong link between increased adipose tissue mass and development of insulin resistance in tissues such as liver and muscle. Under these conditions, adipose tissue synthesizes various pro-inflammatory chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1. This review provides a summary of recent knowledge on the role of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 is a proinflammatory adipokine that is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. New in-vitro data demonstrate that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 has the ability to induce insulin resistance in adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells. By using mice that either overexpress monocyte chemotactic protein-1 or are deficient in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 or its receptor, exciting new insights have been obtained into the role of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 is an adipokine with insulin-resistance-inducing capacity that is related to increased adipose tissue mass in obesity and insulin resistance. It plays an important role in adipose tissue inflammation by recruiting macrophages into fat. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 is thus a therapeutic target, and may represent an important factor linking adipose tissue inflammation, obesity and type 2 diabetes.