The future of apolipoprotein E mimetic peptides in the prevention of cardiovascular disease

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Purpose of reviewThis review aims to discuss the recent developments in the area of apolipoprotein E (apoE) mimetics and their therapeutic potential for treating cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.Recent findingsOngoing research efforts target the development of novel therapies that would not only reduce circulating levels of atherogenic lipoproteins, but could also increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and/or improve HDL function. Among them, synthetic peptides that mimic the structure of natural human apoE, a component of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL, have been designed and proven to be functionally similar to apoE. In specific, apoE mimetic peptides mediate hepatic clearance of circulating atherogenic lipoproteins, dramatically reduce plasma cholesterol, and lead to attenuation of atherosclerosis development in vivo. These peptides also exhibit pleiotropic antiatherogenic properties, such as macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity, as well as anti-inflammatory and antioxidative functions.SummaryApoE mimetics are undergoing preclinical and clinical evaluation with promising results to date that render them attractive candidates in cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment.

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