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We aimed to test the association of polymorphisms in HTR2A, TPH1, and TPH2 genes with attempted suicide in rural China.On the basis of a case–control study, we recruited 1200 pairs of participants from Shandong Province, China. The blood samples of 712 suicide attempters and 739 nonsuicide attempters were collected finally. We tested seven single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs6313 and rs6311 in HTR2A, rs4537731, rs1800532, and rs1799913 in TPH1, and rs4448731 and rs4641527 in TPH2.In univariate analysis, allele C of rs4537731 was associated negatively with attempted suicide among total and male samples; however, the association was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis after adjusting for other potential confounding factors. No association between other six single nucleotide polymorphisms and attempted suicide was found in the total, male, or female samples.This study did not support the effect of these seven serotonergic gene polymorphisms on attempted suicide in rural China.