Evolving strategies for renoprotection: non-diabetic chronic renal disease

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Experimental and clinical studies over the past two decades have identified several interventions for slowing the progression of chronic renal disease towards end-stage renal failure. In this paper we review the experimental and clinical evidence in support of dietary protein restriction, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy, control of systemic hypertension, reduction of proteinuria, treatment of hyperlipidemia and smoking cessation. We also consider potential future renoprotective therapies. Finally we propose a comprehensive strategy for achieving maximal renoprotection with available interventions and monitoring.

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