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Control of serum phosphorus levels is a central goal in the management of patients with chronic renal failure. Inadequate control of serum phosphorus leads to elevated levels of the calcium-phosphorus product. This plays a pivotal role in vascular calcification, cardiovascular disease, calciphylaxis, and death. Elevated phosphorus and elevated levels of the calcium-phosphorus product are both significant predictors of cardiovascular mortality, at phosphorus and calcium-phosphorus product levels that were considered safe until recently. A lowering of levels such that phosphorus is maintained between 2.2 and 5.5 mg/dl, calcium-phosphorus product is below 55 mg2/dl2, and serum calcium is at 9.2-9.6 mg/dl, respectively, might well be the goal of therapeutic management strategies.