The clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease

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Purpose of reviewTo review recent publications concerning the epidemiology and management of cardiovascular disease in the stages of chronic kidney disease.Recent findingsChronic kidney disease is a state of increased risk for atherosclerotic and cardiomyopathic disease. The mechanisms of cardiovascular disease probably change with the different stages of chronic kidney disease. Both proteinuria and decreased glomerular filtration rate are probably independent cardiovascular disease risk factors, although the impact of the latter is modest. Traditional risk factors are important predictors of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. Recent randomized controlled trials and cohort studies have supported interventions for smoking cessation, blood pressure control, renin–angiotensin system blockade, the correction of lipid abnormalities, and utilizing antiplatelet agents. Some uraemia-related risk factors predict the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly hypoalbuminaemia, inflammation, anaemia, and homocysteinaemia. However, randomized controlled trials of anaemia correction and of an increased quantity of dialysis were negative.SummaryThe role of oxidant stress, divalent ion abnormalities, various lipid abnormalities and other potential factors require further investigation. To determine whether these uraemia-related factors are markers of cardiovascular disease risk or are actually cardiotoxic requires additional randomized controlled trials.

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