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Medication-related problems are very common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Identification, prevention and management of these problems require a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach. This article reviews the recent literature regarding medication-related problems in CKD and proposes initiatives for addressing these problems through a structured review process and use of patient-centered adherence-promoting strategies.Pharmacist-conducted medication review and intervention programs are successful at identifying and resolving medication-related problems in CKD patients. These programs are associated with a reduction in the number of medications and frequency of hospitalization, and are associated with maintenance of quality of life. However, adherence continues to be a major medication-related problem in CKD care.Structured medication review and assessment of adherence assist in identification and resolution of medication-related problems in CKD. More research is needed on successful methods to improve medication adherence and related health outcomes.