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Urine is the most useful of body fluids for biomarker research. Therefore, we have focused on urinary proteomics, using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry, to investigate kidney diseases in recent years.Several urinary proteomics studies for the detection of various kidney diseases have indicated the potential of this approach aimed at diagnostic and prognostic assessment. Urinary protein biomarkers such as collagen fragments, serum albumin, α-1-antitrypsin, and uromodulin can help to explain the processes involved during disease progression.Urinary proteomics has been used in several studies in order to identify and validate biomarkers associated with different kidney diseases. These biomarkers, with improved sensitivity and specificity when compared with the current gold standards, provide a significant alternative for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as improving clinical decision-making.