Renin–angiotensin system inhibition in advanced chronic kidney disease: how low can the kidney function go?

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Purpose of reviewTo present the available data on the risks and benefits for ACEi/ARB usage in patients with advanced CKD.Recent findingsIt has been well established that ACEi/ARB use is beneficial in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD, especially in patients with proteinuria. The majority of available data includes patients with diabetes mellitus. However, data in individuals with advanced CKD are limited. Additionally, data available for this subset of patients is conflicting and the definition of advanced CKD varies across clinical trials.SummaryOn the basis of our literature review, evidence suggests continuing ACEi/ARB therapy in patients with advanced CKD (eGFR less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m) unless hyperkalemia ensues unresponsive to therapy, hypotension develops or have unusually rapid worsening of eGFR (not usual progressive decline). These patients should be monitored closely. There is not enough data to support starting ACEi/ARBs de novo in patients with advanced CKD (eGFR less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m). If RAS blockade is started de novo in this subgroup, we recommend close monitoring.

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