The kidney transcriptome, from single cells to whole organs and back

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Purpose of reviewTranscriptome analysis of human kidney samples provides an integrated output of genetic, physiological, or environmental inputs. This review will summarize recent findings including gene expression and genetic variation integration, bulk and single cell gene expression analysis, and describes how such studies have improved our understanding of kidney disease development.Recent findingsBulk or whole tissue analysis of patient kidney samples identified a large number of genes those levels correlate with kidney function and/or structural damage. These genes were enriched for metabolic and immune functions. Using expression quantitative trait analysis, genetic variations-driven gene expression can be identified. Recent developments in single cell sequencing defined cell-type-specific gene expression changes and highlighted specific cell types for disease development.SummaryRecent advancement in whole tissue transcriptomics, specifically incorporating genotype information and single cell data have been powerful to identify kidney disease-associated genes, pathways, and cell types.

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