Blood pressure, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are highly correlated conditions. The longitudinal effect of exposure to postmenopausal estrogen therapy on these traits studied together has not been reported.Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study of 1,044 older postmenopausal community-dwelling women from the Rancho Bernardo Study (1992-1996); 443 women were reevaluated ∼10 years later (2002-2005). We determined the cross-sectional and prospective association of baseline postmenopausal estrogen therapy and blood pressure, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, GFR, and the odds of categorical hypertension (physician diagnosis, medication, or blood pressure ≥140/≥90 mm Hg), chronic kidney disease (GFR ≤60 mL/min per 1.73 m2), and albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥25 mg/g).Results:
At baseline, the mean age was 68.3 years for current estrogen users, 75.4 years for past users, and 74.3 years for never users. In the cross-sectional analyses, current users had lower diastolic blood pressure and lower odds of having chronic kidney disease, independent of covariates. In the ∼10-year follow-up, comparisons between never, past, and current estrogen use (91% continuous use since baseline), the mean diastolic blood pressure declined over time in current users, whereas systolic blood pressure increased among never users. Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio also increased in never users and decreased in current users; GFR did not differ by estrogen use.Conclusions:
In cross-sectional analyses, estrogen users had better GFR and blood pressure than nonusers did, but the 10-year follow-up showed improved blood pressure and decreased urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio among mostly long-term current users, without differences in GFR by estrogen use. This study suggests no association of GFR with 10 years of continuous estrogen use and an inverse association with albuminuria.