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Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are the two most common diseases in postmenopausal women. In most cases, they are simultaneously present in the same individual and commonly lead to bone fracture or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Bisphosphonates (BPs) are frequently used in the treatment of osteoporosis and have the ability to increase lumbar spine bone mineral density (L-BMD). BPs may also protect against CVD. A single monthly 50-mg dose of minodronate (monthly minodronate) is now common practice and is highly anticipated to reduce the incidence of both bone fracture and CVD. A useful approach to independently predicting CVD is brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Here, we directly compared the effects of monthly minodronate with those of a standard single weekly 35-mg dose of alendronate (weekly alendronate) on L-BMD and baPWV in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis across a 12-month period.Thirty-eight postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were randomized into two treatment groups (group 1, weekly alendronate, n = 19; group 2, monthly minodronate, n = 19). L-BMD and baPWV were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up.At the end of the 12-month period, increases in L-BMD were similar between group 1 (7.6%) and group 2 (8.5%), but baPWV was significantly reduced in group 2 compared with group 1. The change in baPWV during the study period showed a significant negative correlation with the change in L-BMD.Changes in L-BMD in the monthly minodronate and weekly alendronate groups are generally comparable. Good control of changes in L-BMD in the postmenopausal phase might be associated with regression of CVD. Monthly minodronate is a promising new BP and potential first-line drug for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.