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The aim of the study was to describe the effects of TX-001HR (17β-estradiol [E2] and natural progesterone [P4] in a single oral capsule) on menopause-specific quality of life in women with moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS).The REPLENISH study (NCT01942668) was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial which evaluated four E2/P4 doses in postmenopausal women with VMS and a uterus. Women with moderate to severe hot flushes (≥7/d or ≥50/wk) were included in a VMS substudy. Participants self-administered the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire. Baseline changes in MENQOL overall and domains were determined as well as correlations between changes in MENQOL scores and VMS frequency or severity.In the VMS substudy, women treated with E2/P4 had significantly greater improvements from baseline in their MENQOL overall score at week 12, and months 6 and 12, compared with placebo (all, P < 0.05, except the lowest E2/P4 dose at months 6 and 12). Improvements from baseline for the MENQOL vasomotor domain score were significantly greater with TX-001HR doses versus placebo at all time points (all, P < 0.01). Changes in MENQOL vasomotor scores moderately correlated with changes in VMS frequency (r = 0.56, P < 0.0001) and severity (r = 0.55, P < 0.0001).In the REPLENISH trial, women with moderate to severe VMS treated with most E2/P4 doses reported significant improvements in quality of life from baseline to 12 weeks compared with placebo, which were maintained up to 12 months. TX-001HR, if approved, may provide the first oral hormone therapy formulation in a single capsule containing E2 and P4 for the treatment of VMS in postmenopausal women with a uterus.