Contemporary outcomes in bladder exstrophy

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Purpose of review

The patient with bladder exstrophy presents complex surgical and clinical management challenges to the pediatric urologist. This review aims to present recent developments in the care of these patients as well as to review contemporary medical outcomes.

Recent findings

Most of the early literature pertaining to bladder exstrophy has focused on surgical techniques and management. In the last 10–20 years, however, there has been an increase in the number of publications dealing with long-term outcomes in these patients. Psychosexual development, sexual function and social adaptation have received as much attention as urinary continence status, bladder, and renal function. This review will examine these topics.


Despite the complex nature of bladder exstrophy, there are no well designed, prospective trials examining clinical outcomes in these patients. Until better trials are planned, executed and published, much of what we know about patients with bladder exstrophy will be based on retrospective observations with significant biases.

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