AbstractPurpose of review
To evaluate current reviews and assess scientific validity of the recent literature on penile reconstruction after trauma, penile reconstruction in gender reassignment surgery, concealed penis, and aphallia.Recent findings
Technical advances in penile reconstruction have been highlighted. The few long-term follow-up studies available confirm the difficulty of such surgery, in terms of complications and the limits of the final achievable outcomes. The surgery necessitates several steps and a high number of revisions. Scientific progress in penile reconstruction seems slow, with a lack of controlled studies, high rate of loss to follow-up (especially in sex reassignment surgery) and a lack of validated assessment measures. However, a few recent studies are making the problems clearer, especially in patient selection and the avoidance of raising false expectations in patients.