Prostate cancer immunotherapy: where are we and where are we going?

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Purpose of review

In this review, we present the progress and current landscape for prostate cancer immunotherapy and overview recent scientific findings that shed novel insights into immunoresistance and discuss potential therapeutic strategies.

Recent findings

Prostate cancer immunogenicity is hampered by a highly immunosuppressive microenvironment and low mutation burden. Complex interactions between resident immunosuppressive cells such regulatory T cells, macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and cancer cells cooperate to suppress antitumor immune responses and promote disease progression. A biphasic approach that boosts tumor immunogenicity and blockade of immunosuppressive pathways will most likely be required in order to produce meaningful therapeutic responses.


Significant advances have shed new light on prostate cancer immunology. These findings should enhance the development of immunotherapeutic strategies, especially when used in combination with other cancer treatments.

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