Gel Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Fillers


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Abstract

BACKGROUNDMost of the hyaluronic acid (HA)-based dermal fillers currently on the market are chemically modified with cross-linkers to improve the mechanical properties and duration in vivo.OBJECTIVETo investigate differences in the properties of dermal fillers that can be related to the respective cross-linking and manufacturing methods used.METHODS AND MATERIALSThirteen commercially available HA fillers were analyzed. Two different measures of gel strength were used: the elastic modulus (G′) determined by rheology and a measure of the swelling capacity of the gel (cmin). The degree of modification was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the cross-linking ratio was determined using size exclusion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.RESULTSThere was a wide variation in gel strength, and the degree of modification varied between 1% and 8% for the HA fillers investigated.CONCLUSIONSBoth measures of gel strength, G* and cmin, can be used because the results from the two methods are well correlated. No differentiation in filler properties could be seen as a result of manufacturing process used, except that the nonanimal stabilized HA stabilization process resulted in products with high gel strength and a low degree of modification.

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