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Treatment of nevus sebaceus (NS) on the scalp is usually surgical excision, but the optimal timing is debatable. The scalp presents significant challenges to the reconstructive surgeon because the lack of elasticity of the scalp makes the repair of defects difficult.The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal timing for surgical excision of NS on the scalp through postoperative outcomes.The authors retrospectively reviewed the postoperative cosmetic results of patients with a follow-up period of 12 to 15 months. The variables analyzed were patient demographics, preoperative tumor size, location, operative time, cosmetic results, and complications.This study enrolled 62 patients, including 30 adults and 32 children. The main complications were hair loss, hypertrophic scar, and widening of the scar. The overall complication rate was 17.7%, and the complication rate in children (9/32, 28.1%) was higher than that in adults (2/30, 6.7%) (p < .05). Tumor location, shape, and size showed no association with complications.Complications after surgical excision of NS on the scalp are more likely to occur in children than in adults. On the basis of these findings, surgical excision of NS on the scalp can be delayed until after childhood.