The acquisition of iron is a necessity for bacterial growth inHelicobacter pylori,as it is for other organisms. In addition, iron is a critical factor for the virulence of this organism. Therefore, it is not surprising thatH. pyloriisolates have the potential to express at least three major iron acquisition mechanisms. The association ofH. pyloriinfection with host iron deficiency might indicate that the iron-scavenging systems play a role in the virulence ofH. pylori.