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Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) is a promoter of cytokine production triggered by microbial components. To investigate the significance of its soluble counterpart, sTREM-1, for the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease, sTREM-1 was compared with the proinflammatory mediators and the pathology score of gastritis.Forty patients with dyspepsia were enrolled: 20 with peptic ulcer and 20 controls without any macroscopic abnormalities. All patients were examined by endoscopy; gastric juice was aspirated and biopsy specimens were collected from the antrum and corpus of the stomach. sTREM-1 was estimated by a hand-made enzyme immunoassay. Interleukin-8 was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lipid peroxidation, indexed by malondialdehyde, by the thiobarbituric assay, after passage through a high-performance liquid chromatography system.The median (±SE) of sTREM-1 of controls and patients with ulcer was 3.91±0.57 and 44.27±241.55 RU, respectively (P=0.006). The median (±SE) of interleukin-8 of controls and patients with ulcer was 1802.97±122.10 and 2030.66±64.44 pg/ml, respectively (P=0.023). sTREM-1 was positively correlated with the density of neutrophil and mononuclear infiltration scores and the total Sydney score (P=0.029, 0.043 and 0.041, respectively). sTREM-1 was positively correlated with interleukin-8 (P=0.042).sTREM-1 might be an independent factor involving with the peptic ulcerative inflammatory process that is positively correlated with histopathological abnormalities of gastritis.