Risk factors for bleeding evaluated using the Forrest classification in Japanese patients after endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric neoplasm

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Bleeding remains a serious complication after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Second-look endoscopy for hemostasis helps prevent post-ESD bleeding. We investigated the relationships between patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, and the Forrest classification for exposed vessels on artificial ulcers after ESD and evaluated whether hemostasis during second-look endoscopy was useful for preventing post-ESD bleeding.

Patients and methods

We analyzed 250 patients (265 lesions) who underwent ESD for gastric neoplasms. Vessels classified by Forrest classifications during scheduled second-look endoscopy were analyzed for associations with patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, and recurrent bleeding.


Two of 250 patients (0.8%) underwent emergency hemostatic endoscopy before scheduled second-look endoscopy. The remaining 248 patients (99.2%) underwent scheduled second-look endoscopy on the day after ESD. Patients with Forrest classification Ia, Ib, or IIa vessels had a significantly higher risk for recurrent bleeding after scheduled second-look endoscopy compared with patients with IIb or III vessels according to univariate analysis (P<0.05) and multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 3.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.04–11.41; P=0.042). Univariate analysis indicated that hemodialysis correlated significantly with the presence of Ia, Ib, or IIa vessels compared with that of IIb or III vessels found during second-look endoscopy (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated a significant relationship between hemodialysis and recurrent bleeding after second-look endoscopy (odds ratio: 10.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.97–51.26; P=0.006).


Hemodialysis is a risk factor for post-ESD bleeding. Proper classification of exposed vessels within post-ESD ulcers according to the Forrest classification using second-look endoscopy might help predict or prevent recurrent bleeding.

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