Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage for acute cholecystitis with a lumen-apposing metal stent: a systematic review of case series

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Management of patients with acute cholecystitis unfit for surgery is challenging. Recently, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided gallbladder drainage with a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) has been introduced for these patients. We performed a systematic review and pooled-data analysis in this field. A comprehensive review of case series on gallbladder drainage with EUS-guided LAMS placement was performed. Only case series with at least five patients were considered. The rates of technical success, clinical success, and adverse events were computed. Overall, nine case series with a total of 226 patients were identified. The stent was positioned successfully in 215 cases [95.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=92.3−98]. Clinical success was achieved in 207 patients, corresponding to a 91.6% (95% CI=88−95.2) rate at intention-to-treat analysis and 96.3% (95% CI=93.7−99) at per-protocol analysis. A total of 24 (10.6%) adverse events occurred, including 11 (4.9%) cases during the procedure, and 13 (5.7%) observed at follow-up (median=6 months; range: 2−12 months). A surgical approach was required in only 25% of patients with a major adverse event. No case of procedure-related death was reported. EUS-guided LAMS placement for gallbladder drainage in patients with acute cholecystitis not suitable for surgery is highly successful and acceptably safe.

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