Fatal Lymphoproliferative Disease as a Complication of Evans Syndrome


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Abstract

A 9-month-old boy had bruising and petechiae. Investigation revealed a Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. The infant was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. The infant eventually had recurrent fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pulmonary nodules, and parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) lesions develop. Results of a lung biopsy revealed a polyclonal lymphoproliferative disease. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the presence of the Epstein–Barr (EB) viral genome in the lung nodules. The infant died from progressive lung disease 6 months after the initial symptoms of Evans syndrome. Lymphoproliferative disease is known to occur in a variety of settings after immunosuppression, especially in solid organ transplant recipients. We report a case of polyclonal lymphocyte proliferation in a patient with Evans syndrome.

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