Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

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Abstract

Purpose

To assess cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Patients and Methods

Twenty-six subjects (median age, 20.9 years; median interval since completion of therapy, 13.3 years) were evaluated. Ten participants had received cranial irradiation (CRT), whereas 16 had received only chemotherapy. Primary outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting lipoprotein, glucose, and insulin levels. Secondary measures included insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 levels, physical activity index, a 7-day dietary recall, tobacco product use, and measurement of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery.

Results

Sixty-two percent (16/26) of participants had at least one CVRF potentially related to their cancer treatment (obesity, dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, or insulin resistance), with 30% (7/26) having more than two CVRF. Thirty-one percent (8/26) of subjects were obese (BMI ≥30). Subjects who were treated with CRT (BMI, 30.4 ± 6.7) had an increased BMI (P = 0.039) in comparison with those who received only chemotherapy (BMI, 25.4 ± 5.1). Triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein C levels were significantly higher in those treated with CRT (P = 0.027 and 0.022, respectively). The IGF-1 was inversely correlated with IMT (total group, −0.514, P = 0.009; females only, −0.729, P = 0.003).

Conclusions

Young adult survivors of childhood ALL, especially those treated with CRT, are at risk for obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Further investigation of these risks is warranted.

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