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Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP) is a bleeding disorder in which autoantibodies are directed against an individual's own platelets, leading to enhanced clearance through Fc receptor (R)-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages residing in the reticuloendothelial system, particularly in the spleen. This review surveys the recent current literature and updates our understanding of the cell-mediated immunology of AITP. It will focus on the relationship between T-cell reactivities and cytokine profiles in patients with AITP. Understanding these cellular immune aspects of AITP is vital for developing antigen-specific immunotherapies to treat the disease.