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The clinical features of Epstein-Barr virus-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) vary significantly, from mild to severe, at the time of the treatment decision. There are many reports of successful treatments, for example conservative treatment without etoposide, HLH-94/2004-type immunochemotherapy with etoposide, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. When considering the treatment of EBV-HLH, the most important factor is the finding that a survival benefit is obtained when etoposide-containing therapy is initiated within 4 weeks of diagnosis. This indicates that there may be a window for observation or conservative corticosteroid/cyclosporine A or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment; however, once the disease is defined as “high risk” and/or refractory to such therapy, prompt introduction of etoposide (ideally within 4 wk) is recommended. In deciding whether the disease is “high-risk,” evaluation of clinical staging, EBV genome copy numbers in the serum, cellular EBV tropism, chromosome analysis, and screening for hereditary immuno-deficient diseases such as familial HLH, are required.