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The main objectives of this article were to study a severe congenital protein C deficiency (PCD) in a patient with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and analyze the cause of this case.We had recorded clinical manifestations of the patient, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and gene sequencing of the PROC gene and NOTCH3 gene to study the disease in this family. We checked the change of NOTCH3 protein by immunohistochemistry.Laboratory studies of the patient had revealed that his PC activity was 3%. Magnetic resonance imaging results showed hyperintense lesions in the cerebral white matter of the patient. PROC gene and NOTCH3 gene sequencing was performed among the family members. The patient was confirmed as homozygous for the (A-G)-12 at the transcription initiation site in the promoter region of the PROC gene and heterozygous mutation of the NOTCH3 gene. Immunohistochemical results showed that NOTCH3 protein was positive in the skin vascular smooth muscle of the patient.We studied a rare case of an infat boy diagnosed with both congenital PCD and CADASIL; congenital PCD was attributable to a compound that was homozygous for (A-G)-12 at the transcription initiation site in the promoter region of the PROC gene, and CADASIL was caused by missense mutation in exon 24 of NOTCH3. He was a sporadic patient with congenital PCD and CADASIL; it maybe that the deficiency of protein C led to early onset of CADASIL. The gene sequencing of PROC gene and NOTCH3 gene may have important value for fertility guidance and prenatal diagnosis.