Late Recurrence of Wilms Tumor After 17 Years: A Case Report

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Wilms tumor is the most common renal malignancy in children. Most of Wilms tumor recurrences occur within 2 years of the first diagnosis. Relapse after 5 years after the first diagnosis is called “late recurrence” and is rare in Wilms tumor. There are few case reports or small series of late recurrence of Wilms tumor. Because of the rarity of late recurrence of Wilms tumor, there is no clear guideline for its management. We describe a case of late recurrence of Wilms tumor as a remote metastasis in the lung at 18 years after the first diagnosis and 17 years after the second remission, which was achieved by radiotherapy and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue. After late recurrence, the patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, and remained disease-free for 11 months. Several very late recurrences of Wilms tumor in the literature are reviewed.

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