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Recall the properties of stachylysin and the characteristics of the assays developed to quantify it.Identify the types of indoor environment that harbor Stachybotrys chartarum.Summarize the results of stachylysin assays in rats and humans exposed to S. chartarum.The goal of this research was to develop a measurable indicator of human exposure to Stachyborys chartarum. Antibodies were produced against the hemolytic agent stachylysin obtained from the mold S. chartarum. These antibodies were used to develop two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods for the analysis of stachylysin in human and rat sera and environmental samples. Stachylysin was measured in rat pups that received nasal instillations of S. chartarum conidia but not in control rat serum. Stachylysin in the serum of five human adults exposed to S. chartarum in water-damaged environments was 371 ng/mL but none was detected in the control serum. Stachylysin was also quantified in spore, wallboard, mycelial, and dust samples. The measurement of stachylysin may be a useful indicator in assessing human exposure to S. chartarum and in determining the presence of this indoor mold.