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The aim of this study was o examine how work and nonwork health-related factors contribute to workers’ compensation (WC) claims by gender.Workers (N = 16,926) were enrolled in the Pinnacol Assurance Health Risk Management study, a multiyear, longitudinal research program assessing small and medium-sized enterprises in Colorado. Hypotheses were tested using gender-stratified logistic regression models.For both women and men, having incurred a prior WC claim increased the odds of a future claim. The combination of incurring a prior claim and having metabolic health conditions resulted in lower odds of a future claim. Behavioral health risk factors increased the odds of having a claim more so among women than among men.This study provides data to support multifactorial injury theories, and the need for injury prevention efforts that consider workplace conditions as well as worker health.