Recommendations for the prevention of coronary artery disease in Asians: a scientific statement of the International College of Nutrition

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There has been a rapid increase in coronary artery disease (CAD) in most Asian countries in association with rapid economic development; however, there is no consensus of opinion on diet and lifestyle guidelines and desirable levels of risk factors for prevention of CAD in these countries. The proportion of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases in Asians may be about 15% but there are wide variations. In view of the lower fat intake of the low-risk rural populations of India, the People's Republic of China, Indonesia, Korea, Thailand and Japan compared with that of urban subjects, the limit for total energy from fat intake in an average should be 21% (7% each from saturated, polyunsaturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids). The n-6: n-3 fatty acids ratio should be<5.0. The carbohydrates intake should be>65% and mainly from complex carbohydrates (>55%). A body mass index of 21 kg/m2 may be safe but the range may be 18.5-23.0 kg/m2 and someone with a body mass index>23 kg/m2 should be considered overweight. A waist:hip ratio>0.88 for men and >0.85 for women should be considered to define central obesity. The desirable limit for serum total cholesterol may be 170 mg/dl, the borderline high level may be 170-199 mg/dl and the high level 200 mg/dl or above. The corresponding values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol may be 90, 90-109 and 110 mg/dl or above. Fasting serum triglycerides may be<150 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol>35 mg/dl, which are close to the levels in low-risk rural populations. Fasting blood glucose>140 mg/dl and postprandial blood glucose>200 mg/dl may be considered conditions for diabetes, and 140-200 mg/dl, glucose intolerance. An intake of 400g/day fruit, vegetables and legumes, mustard or soybean oil (25g/day) instead of hydrogenated fat, coconut oil or butter in conjunction with moderate physical activity (1255 kJ/day), cessation of tobacco consumption and moderation of alcohol intake may be an effective package of remedies for prevention of CAD in Asians

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