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Optical coherence tomography has assumed an important role in the management of numerous ocular conditions. With regard to ocular oncology, optical coherence tomography can illustrate retinal changes overlying choroidal tumors. Some of these features include photoreceptor loss, intraretinal edema, and retinal thinning overlying choroidal nevus; fresh subretinal fluid with preservation of photoreceptors overlying choroidal melanoma; and intraretinal edema, retinoschisis, and retinal thinning overlying irradiated choroidal melanoma.The optical coherence tomography features of tumors of the retinal pigment epithelium include typical findings of peaked vitreoretinal traction and retinal disorganization with combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium, full-thickness retinal shadowing with congenital simple hamartoma, and photoreceptor loss and retinal thinning overlying congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium.Optical coherence tomography of retinal tumors, such as retinoblastoma and astrocytic hamartoma, reveals full-thickness replacement of the retinal anatomic layers with the tumor and shadowing corresponding to the intralesional calcification. For all intraocular tumors, optical coherence tomography provides valuable information regarding the status of the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium and can be useful in ascertaining reasons for visual loss.