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Animal models are useful to elucidate the etiology and pathology of glaucoma and to develop novel and more effective therapies for the disease. Because of the substantial similarities between the rodent and primate eyes, and the advances of relevant study techniques, rat and mouse models of glaucoma have recently become popular as research tools. This review surveys research techniques used in the measurement of rodent intraocular pressure, and also the evaluation of pertinent morphologic, biochemical, and functional changes in the retina, optic nerve head, and optic nerve. This review further describes in detail the individual rodent models, some of which serve as surrogate models and do not entail ocular hypertension, whereas others involve transient or chronic increases of intraocular pressure. The technical considerations and theoretical concerns of these models, their advantages, and limitations, are also discussed.