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Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy that is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Although methods to lower intraocular pressure are the mainstay of glaucoma therapy, there are currently no available treatment modalities targeted at neuroprotection. Erythropoietin is a hematopoietic cytokine that has been shown to possess remarkable tissue-protective properties in preclinical models of neurodegeneration. As a result, there is a growing interest to explore the neuroprotective properties of erythropoietin as a possible therapeutic agent in neuropathic diseases of the eye such as glaucoma. Initial results in animal models have been promising, but further studies are needed to fully evaluate the safety and efficacy of this candidate neuroprotective agent in clinical trials.