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The introduction of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) has renewed interest in laser trabeculoplasty for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with glaucoma. This review was undertaken to address frequently raised issues pertinent to SLT in clinical practice. On the basis of the peer-reviewed medical literature, SLT demonstrates equivalent efficacy and comparable safety to argon laser trabeculoplasty, and is also equally as effective as topical medical therapy. SLT's safety profile includes mild and transient inflammation, ocular pain, and a small risk of moderate IOP elevations after the procedure. The mechanism of action of SLT is not known. SLT delivers less energy to the trabecular meshwork and generates less damage to angle tissues. Whether this renders SLT more repeatable than argon laser trabeculoplasty has not been evaluated in published data. SLT seems to be a safe and effective means of IOP reduction in eyes with glaucoma, and can reasonably be applied as primary or adjunctive therapy.