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The supportive care of the neutropenic host is a complex problem and has been based primarily on the experience in cancer patients. The introduction of hematopoietic growth factors has been a major advancement, but further studies are needed to clarify their proper use in different clinical settings. In addition, the affect of growth factors-stimulated granulocyte transfusion will have to be defined. Together with a better understanding of different risk factors contributing to the risk of infection, the approach to treatment of the neutropenic patient will continue to evolve and hopefully permit more judicious use of antibiotic and growth factor therapies.