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Pulmonary tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in the greatest number of deaths due to any one single infectious agent. This trend is due, at least in part, to increasing numbers of individuals co-infected with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Concerted efforts between the World Health Organization and other agencies, therefore, are underway to improve tuberculosis control worldwide. These include basic research in tuberculosis diagnostics and vaccine development, institution of preventive therapy in individuals dually infected with HIV and MTB, and directly observed short-course antituberculous therapy in developing countries with a high prevalence of MTB infection. Further, newer, longer-acting antituberculous therapeutic agents such as rifapentine, which allow twice-weekly dosing in the continuation phase of anti-MTB therapy, have recently been released and are undergoing clinical trials. This review provides a synopsis of recent developments in these areas and serves as a reference source for interested readers.