Ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by ESKAPE organisms: cause, clinical features, and management

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Purpose of reviewDespite important geographical variations, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species (ESKAPE) pathogens constitute more than 80% of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) episodes. Their clinical importance relies on their virulence and ability in developing mechanisms to decrease susceptibility to antimicrobials, increasing inappropriate therapy and affecting negatively on ICU patients’ outcome. This review updates information on VAP due to ESKAPE pathogens.Recent findingsAlthough methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus VAP may be clinically similar to that caused by susceptible strains, it is associated with poorer outcomes despite adequate treatment. Local colonization determines treatment options. The contribution of tracheobronchitis is an important issue. Minimum inhibitory concentration should be considered for nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria VAP to prescribe extended infusion β-lactam treatment due to an increase of resistant strains. Strategies promoting antimicrobial diversity may protect against emergence and spread of resistance by ESKAPE pathogens.SummaryVAP due to ESKAPE pathogens represents a global challenge that can be prevented using stewardship programmes promoting diversity.

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