Candida peritonitis

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Purpose of reviewThe review highlights current insights in the epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy of Candida peritonitis, focusing on complicated secondary and tertiary peritonitis.Recent findingsCandida peritonitis is still associated with poor prognosis. Antifungal prophylaxis is therefore recommended in patients with an overt risk profile for invasive candidiasis (immunodeficiency and prior antibiotic exposure). The clinical and microbiological diagnosis of Candida peritonitis remains problematic. It is still unclear which peritonitis patients may benefit from antifungal treatment. Antifungal therapy can be suggested in critically ill patients with nosocomial peritonitis where Candida is diagnosed based on perioperatively sampled peritoneal fluid. Patients with prior exposure to fluconazole are at risk for Candida nonalbicans spp. involvement with possible reduced susceptibility.SummaryThe main challenge in Candida peritonitis remains the interpretation of Candida cultured from the peritoneal cavity. Future research should focus on more conclusive diagnosis and on factors potentially confounding outcome, such as site of the perforation and failure of surgical source control. While awaiting progress to discriminate Candida colonization from invasive infection, antifungal therapy is recommended in high-risk critically ill surgical patients. Rapid detection of Candida might be beneficial in this regard. Besides antifungal therapy, adequate source control is of key importance.

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