Oxidative injuries, such as those related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been implicated in various retinal and optic nerve disorders. Many ROS detection methods have been developed. Although widely utilized, many of these methods are useful only in post mortem tissues, or require relatively expensive equipment, or involve intraocular injection. In the present study, we demonstrated and characterized a chemiluminescent probe L-012 as a noninvasive, in vivo ROS detection agent in the mouse retina. Using optic nerve crush (ONC) and retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) as injury models, we show that L-012 produced intensive luminescent signals specifically in the injured eyes. Histological examination showed that L-012 administration was safe to the retina. Additionally, compounds that reduce tissue superoxide levels, apocynin and TEMPOL, decreased injury-induced L-012 chemiluminescence. The decrease in L-012 signals correlated with their protective effects against retinal I/R-induced morphological and functional changes in the retina. Together, these data demonstrate the feasibility of a fast, simple, reproducible, and non-invasive detection method to monitor in vivo ROS in the retina. Furthermore, the results also show that reduction of ROS is a potential therapeutic approach for protection from these retinal injuries.