Cantharides poisoning may cause serious adverse reactions or even death.We attempt to retrieval articles automatically and manually with the key words of "cantharides" and " poisoning " or " side effects ", then summarized and analyzed the cases of cantharides poisoning from 1996 to 2016 in China, to provide some reference for clinical drug use and forensic identification. Finally, 91 cases were conformance to require; general data, clinical data, prognosis, autopsy results were analyzed.We found that the health education of cantharides in primary doctors and people is lackable, the case fatality rate was 18.68%. The death patients of cantharides poisoning had cardiomyocyte necrosis and neuronal apoptosis in the histopathological examination of autopsy, but the toxicological mechanism was unclear. There may be redistribution of cantharidin in vivo after death. Collectively, we hope that an anthropological database for cantharides poisoning established by multicenter cooperation, include medical institutions and forensic identified centers, and conduct more further studies on its cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity.