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To compare regimens of concurrent strength and endurance training, 26 male basketball players were matched for stature, body composition, and physical activity level. Subjects completed different training programs for 7 weeks, 4 days per week. Groups were as follows: (a) the strength group (S; n = 7) did strength training; (b) the endurance group (E; n = 7) did endurance training; (c) the strength and endurance group (S 1 E; n = 7) combined strength and endurance training; and (d) the control group (C; n = 5) had no training. The S1 E group showed greater gains in VO2max than the E group did (12.9% vs. 6.8%), whereas the S group showed a decline (8.8%). Gains were noted in strength and vertical jump performance for the S 1E and S groups. The S 1 E group had better posttraining anaerobic power than the S group did (6.2% vs. 2.9%). No strength, power, or an-aerobic power gains were present for the E and C groups. We conclude that concurrent endurance and strength training is more effective in terms of improving athletic perfor-mance than are endurance and strength training apart.