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The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acute plyometric exercise on indices of muscle damage and collagen breakdown. Nine untrained men performed an intense bout of plyometric jumping exercises (experimental group) and nine men remained at rest (control group). Seven days before and 24, 48, and 72 hours after plyometric exercise or rest, several physiological and biochemical indices of muscle damage and two biochemical indices of collagen damage were determined. No significant changes in concentric and eccentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors or flexion and extension range of motion were found after the plyometric exercise. Delayed-onset muscle soreness increased 48 hours after exercise. Creatine kinase increased 48 and 72 hours post exercise, whereas lactate dehydrogenase increased 24, 48, and 72 hours post exercise. Serum hydroxyproline increased 24 hours post exercise, peaked at 48 hours, and remained elevated up to 72 hours post exercise. Hydroxylysine (which was measured only before exercise and at 48 hours) was found increased 48 hours post exercise. No differences were found in any physiological or biochemical index in the control group. Intense plyometric exercise increased muscle damage, delayed-onset muscle soreness, and serum indices of collagen breakdown without a concomitant decrease in the functional capacity of muscles. Hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine levels in serum seem promising measures for describing exercise-induced collagen degradation. Coaches need to keep in mind that by using plyometric activities, despite the increased muscle damage and collagen turnover that follow, it is not necessarily accompanied by decreases in skeletal muscle capacity.