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Kerksick, CM, Wilborn, CD, Campbell, BI, Roberts, MD, Rasmussen, CJ, Greenwood, M, and Kreider, RB. Early-phase adaptations to a split-body, linear periodization resistance training program in college-aged and middle-aged men. J Strength Cond Res 23(3): 962-971, 2009-An 8-week, split-body, linear periodized resistance training program was completed by college-aged (CA: 18-22 years; n = 24) and middle-aged (MA: 35-50 years; n = 25) men to determine early-phase adaptations in body composition and upper- and lower-body strength. Participants completed 2 upper-body and 2 lower-body resistance training workouts each week. During weeks 1-4, subjects completed 3-6 sets at a 10-repetition maximum (RM) intensity and increased to 8RM for weeks 5-8. The 1RM strength levels were determined on the bench press and leg press, and 30-second Wingate tests were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks of resistance training. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For selected data, delta values (post - pre values) were calculated and reported as mean ± SEM. No changes (p > 0.05) were reported for peak and average Wingate power. Bench press (CA, 3.2 ± 1.9 kg; MA, 6.2 ± 3.3 kg; p < 0.001) and leg press (CA, 25.0 ± 4.4 kg; MA, 18.2 ± 13.3 kg; p < 0.001) 1RM significantly increased in both groups over time. Lean mass significantly increased over time in both groups (CA, 0.9 ± 2.4 kg; MA, 1.1 ± 1.9 kg; p < 0.001). Significant group × time effects were seen for fat mass changes (CA, 0.5 ± 1.3 kg; MA, −0.5 ± 1.1 kg; p = 0.01) and % body fat changes (CA, 0.4 ± 1.4%; MA, −0.7 ± 1.1%; p = 0.01). These results indicate that performing a split-body, linearly periodized resistance training program for 8 weeks significantly increases bench press 1RM, leg press 1RM, and DXA lean mass in CA and MA men. Furthermore, MA men lost significantly more fat mass and significantly decreased % body fat compared with CA men. A split-body, linearly periodized resistance training program may be used as an effective program to increase strength and lean mass in both young and MA populations.