Killgore, GL, Coste, SC, O'Meara, SE, and Konnecke, CJ. A comparison of the physiological exercise intensity differences between shod and barefoot submaximal deep-water running at the same cadence. J Strength Cond Res 24(12): 3302-3312, 2010-The purpose of this investigation was to identify whether physiological exercise intensity differed with the use of aquatic training shoes (ATS) during deep-water running (DWR) compared to using a barefoot condition. Eight male intercollegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III [NCAA III]) varsity distance runners were videotaped from the right sagittal view while running on a treadmill (TR) and while barefoot in deep water at 60-70% of their TR JOURNAL/jscr/04.02/00124278-201012000-00034/ENTITY_OV0312/v/2017-07-20T235434Z/r/image-pngo2max for 30 minutes. Based on the stride rate of the barefoot DWR trial, a subsequent 30-minute session was completed while wearing ATS. Variables of interest were energy expenditure, oxygen consumption (JOURNAL/jscr/04.02/00124278-201012000-00034/ENTITY_OV0312/v/2017-07-20T235434Z/r/image-pngo2), heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Multivariate omnibus tests revealed statistically significant differences for energy expenditure (p < 0.011), JOURNAL/jscr/04.02/00124278-201012000-00034/ENTITY_OV0312/v/2017-07-20T235434Z/r/image-pngo2 (p < 0.001), RPE (p < 0.001), and RER (p < 0.002). The post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between barefoot and shod DWR conditions for energy expenditure (p < 0.005) and JOURNAL/jscr/04.02/00124278-201012000-00034/ENTITY_OV0312/v/2017-07-20T235434Z/r/image-pngo2 (p < 0.002), representing a 9 and 7.6% increase in exercise intensity demand while running shod vs. barefoot. These comparisons also revealed significantly higher RPE and RER values while DWR than those found in TR. Wearing the ATS may be recommended as a method of statistically significantly increasing the exercise intensity while running in deep water as compared to not wearing a shoe. Shod compared to TR yields very small differences, which indicates that the shoes may help better match land-based running exercise intensities.