Chtourou, H, Driss, T, Souissi, S, Gam, A, Chaouachi, A, Souissi, N. The effect of strength training at the same time of the day on the diurnal fluctuations of muscular anaerobic performances. J Strength Cond Res 26(1): 217–225, 2012—The aim of this study was to examine the effects of training at the same time of the day on the diurnal variations of anaerobic performances to provide some recommendations to adjust training hours with the time of the day of competitive events. Thirty participants underwent 8 weeks of lower-extremity progressive resistance training performed 3 times per week designed to promote muscular strength and power. These subjects were randomly assigned to a morning training group (MTG, 07:00–08:00 hours, n = 10), an evening training group (ETG, 17:00–18:00 hours, n = 10), and a control group (CG, completed all tests but did not train, n = 10). Performance in the squat jump, the countermovement jump, the Wingate and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) during leg extension, leg curl, and squat tests was recorded just before and 2 weeks after an 8-week course of regular training. For all the subjects, the morning and evening tests were scheduled at the same time of the day as for the morning and evening training sessions. Before training, the results indicated a significant increase in performance from morning to evening tests (ca. 2.84–17.55% for all tests) for all groups. After training, the diurnal variations in anaerobic performances were blunted in the MTG. In fact, there was no significant difference in muscular power or strength between morning and evening tests. However, these intradaily variations in anaerobic performances persisted in the ETG and CG. From a practical point of view, adaptation to strength training is greater at the time of the day at which training was scheduled than at other times.