Gabbasov, RT, Arkhipova, AA, Borisova, AV, Hakimullina, AM, Kuznetsova, AV, Williams, AG, Day, SH, and Ahmetov, II. The HIF1A gene Pro582Ser polymorphism in Russian strength athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 2055–2058, 2013—Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (encoded by HIF1A gene) controls a number of genes that are implicated in various cellular functions including glycolysis and cell proliferation and differentiation. The rs11549465 C > T polymorphism in the HIF1A gene, which produces the amino acid substitution Pro582Ser, increases protein stability and transcriptional activity and, therefore, improves glucose metabolism. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between the HIF1A Pro582Ser polymorphism and elite strength athlete status. A total of 208 Russian strength athletes (122 weightlifters and 86 wrestlers) of regional or national competitive standard and 1,413 controls were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We found that the frequency of the HIF1A 582Ser variant was significantly higher in weightlifters (13.1%, p = 0.0031) and wrestlers (15.7%, p = 0.0002) compared with the controls (7.5%). Additionally, the highest (21.1%, p = 0.0052) frequency of the 582Ser variant was found in a group of elite strength athletes. Thus, our study provides evidence for an association between the HIF1A gene Pro582Ser polymorphism and elite strength athlete status. Although more replication studies are needed, the preliminary data suggest an opportunity to use the analysis of HIF1A polymorphism along with other gene variations and standard phenotypic assessment in sports selection.