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The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels and clinical significance of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 in children with hyperuricemia (HUA).We included 71 children with HUA and 71 children with no HUA as control subjects. Children with HUA were divided into groups I and II according to whether they had a history of acute gout-like attacks (including sudden monoarthritis of rapid onset with intense pain and swelling). Group I was examined twice (A, in the acute phase; B, in the remission phase). Serum IL-1β and IL-6 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Serum IL-1β and IL-6 levels were increased in children with HUA and were overall statistically different from the control group (P < 0.05, respectively). Serum IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly higher in group IA in comparison with group IB, group II, and control subjects (P < 0.05, respectively), as well as in groups IB and II compared with control subjects (P < 0.05, respectively). In group IB, the serum IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations were higher than those in group II, but there were no statistical differences (P > 0.05). In addition, in children with HUA, serum IL-1β and IL-6 levels were positively associated with white blood cell count, neutrophil count, monocyte count, uric acid levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels (all P < 0.05), but were not associated with triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all P > 0.05).IL-1β and IL-6 levels are increased in children with hyperuricemia, even if they have not had acute gout. Further studies are necessary to fully characterize the significance of IL-1β and IL-6 found in HUA children, and whether they could be correlated with long-term prognosis.