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The benign fibro-osseous lesions (BFOL) represent a clinically diverse group of disorders of bone that share similar histopathologic features. As a group, they are relatively common in the craniofacial complex, especially the jaws. Although the general concept of BFOL is relatively well known, specific diagnostic interpretation of individual cases is often challenging. New concepts and controversies have arisen over the past 10 to 15 years regarding classification and diagnostic criteria. However, among the new theories and contentions, there is now essential agreement that the osseous dysplasias represent a single disease process, while the so-called “juvenile active ossifying fibroma” and other “aggressive,” “active,” “psammomatoid” ossifying/cementifying fibromas remain controversial. This review is presented to update the surgical pathologist on the various entities comprising the spectrum of BFOL and to examine the criteria for their diagnosis.