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The tat, rev, vpu, and env genes from the monocytotropic CCR5dependent HIV-1 Ba-L isolate were substituted for homologous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) sequences in the SIV genome. The resultant SHIV (SHIV Ba-L) replicated in CCR5-positive PM-1 cells but not in CCR5-negative CEMX174 cells. Infection of HOS cells expressing different co-receptors showed SHIV Ba-L to be strictly CCR5-dependent. Infection of PM-1 cells and rhesus peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was highly sensitive to RANTES but not to SDF-1. Although SHIV Ba-L infected rhesus and pigtail macaques intravenously or rectally, plasma viremia was controlled after 3 weeks. After serial passage through 4 pigtails by blood and bone marrow transfer, virus from pigtail PBMCs had higher in vitro infectious titers on rhesus PBMCs and was efficiently transmitted vaginally in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Plasma viremia generally persisted longer than after infection with unpassaged virus but was eventually controlled with no significant decrease in CD4+ T-cell counts in peripheral blood. The envelope gene of SHIV Ba-L revealed a very little genetic drift during in vivo passage. SHIV Ba-L provides a potentially useful model for R5 HIV-1 infection of humans.